Sample Problems Using the Humdrum Toolkit

Below is an alphabetized list of sample musical problems; links lead to pertinent descriptions in the Humdrum User Guide.
A shorter list of sample problem is also available.

  1. Above G4 do higher pitches tend to be louder?
  2. Add explicit breath marks after each phrase.
  3. Add key velocities to some MIDI data that reflect accent levels arising from the meter.
  4. Align and display all of the bass lines for all of the variations concurrently.
  5. Alphabetize a list of titles.
  6. Amalgamate arpeggios into chords and display as notation.
  7. Annotate a score identifying possible cadential 6-4 chords.
  8. Are dynamic swells (crescendo-diminuendos) more common than dips (diminuendos-crescendos)?
  9. Are lower pitches likely to be shorter and higher pitches likely to be longer?
  10. Assemble individual parts into a full scores.
  11. Assemble syllables into words for some vocal text.
  12. Calculate all the permuted harmonic intervals in a chord.
  13. Calculate changes of listeners' heart-rate from physiological data.
  14. Calculate harmonic intervals between concurrent parts.
  15. Calculate harmonic intervals ignoring unisons.
  16. Calculate harmonic intervals in semitones.
  17. Calculate implied harmonic intervals between parts.
  18. Calculate melodic intervals not including intervals between the last note of one phrase and the first note of the next phrase.
  19. Calculate pitch-class sets for melodic passages segmented by rests.
  20. Calculate pitch-class sets for melodic passages segmented by slurs/phrases.
  21. Calculate the difference in duration between the recapitulation and the exposition.
  22. Calculate the interval vector for some set.
  23. Calculate the normal form for some set.
  24. Calculate the prime form for some set.
  25. Calculate the proportion of sonorities where both the oboe and bassoon are active.
  26. Change all pizzicato marks to spiccato marks.
  27. Change all up-stems in measures 34 through 38 to down-stems.
  28. Classify cadences as either authentic, plagal or deceptive.
  29. Classify flute fingering transitions as either easy, moderate, or difficult.
  30. Classify phonemes in a vocal text as fricatives, nasals, plosives, etc.
  31. Classify vocal vowels as front or back, higher or low.
  32. Compare Beethoven's use of dynamic marking with Brahms's.
  33. Compare orchestration patterns between the exposition and the development.
  34. Compare pitch-class sets used at the beginnings of slurs/phrases versus those used at the ends of slurs/phrases.
  35. Compare the average overall dynamic level between the exposition and development sections.
  36. Compare the estimated keys for the 2nd theme in the exposition versus the 2nd theme in the recapitulation.
  37. Compare the first phrase of the Exposition with the first phrase of the Recapitulation.
  38. Compare the number of syllables in the first and second verses.
  39. Contrast the sonorities that occur on the first versus the third beats in a waltz repertory.
  40. Count how many measures contain at least one trill.
  41. Count the number of ascending major sixth intervals that occur in phrases that end on the dominant.
  42. Count the number of barlines in a work.
  43. Count the number of closed-position chords.
  44. Count the number of harmonic functions in each phrase.
  45. Count the number of notes in a work that belong to the same whole-tone set.
  46. Count the number of notes in measures 8 to 16.
  47. Count the number of notes in the exposition.
  48. Count the number of phrases in a score.
  49. Count the number of phrases in each work containing `Liebe' in the title.
  50. Count the number of phrases in the development.
  51. Count the number of phrases that begin on the subdominant pitch.
  52. Count the number of phrases that end on the subdominant pitch.
  53. Count the number of sonorities where the oboe and bassoon sound concurrently.
  54. Count the number of subdominant pitches in the soprano voice that are approached by rising thirds or sixths and that coincide with a dominant seventh chord.
  55. Count the number of tonic pitches that are approached by a weak-to-strong context versus the number of tonic pitches approached by a strong-to-weak context.
  56. Count the number of works by various composers.
  57. Count the proportion of phrase endings in music by Alban Berg where the phrase ends on either a major or minor chord.
  58. Create an inventory of three-note long/short duration patterns.
  59. Determine fret-board patterns that are similar to some specified finger combination.
  60. Determine how frequently ascending melodic leaps are followed by descending steps.
  61. Determine how much longer a passage is when all the repeats are played.
  62. Determine how often a pitch is followed immediately by the same pitch.
  63. Determine how often both the oboe and bassoon are inactive.
  64. Determine the average semitone distance separating the cantus and altus voices in Lassus.
  65. Determine the complement for some pitch-class set.
  66. Determine the frequency of light-related words in the monastic offices for Thomas of Canterbury.
  67. Determine the highest note in the trumpet part in measure 29.
  68. Determine the longest duration of a note that is marked staccato.
  69. Determine the most common rhythmic pattern spanning a measure.
  70. Determine the most frequently used dynamic marking in Beethoven.
  71. Determine the predominant vowel height in a vocal text.
  72. Determine the rhyme scheme for some vocal text.
  73. Determine the total amount of time the trumpet plays.
  74. Determine the total duration of a work for a given metronome marking.
  75. Determine the total nominal duration of Gould's performance of a work.
  76. Determine what transposition of a clarinet melody minimizes the number of tones in the throat register.
  77. Determine whether 90 percent of the notes in a work by Bach use just two durations (such as eighths and sixteenths).
  78. Determine whether a composer uses B-A-C-H more often than would be expected by chance.
  79. Determine whether a work tends to begin quietly and end loudly, or vice versa.
  80. Determine whether any arpeggios form an augmented sixth chord.
  81. Determine whether Bach tends to avoid or prefer augmented eleventh harmonic intervals.
  82. Determine whether Bartók's articulation marks changed over his career.
  83. Determine whether Beethoven tends to link activity in the chalemeau register of the clarinet with low register activity in the strings.
  84. Determine whether descending melodic seconds are more common than ascending seconds.
  85. Determine whether descending minor seconds are more likely to be fah-mi or doh-ti.
  86. Determine whether flats are more common than sharps in Monteverdi.
  87. Determine whether German drinking songs are more likely to be in triple meter.
  88. Determine whether Haydn tends to avoid V-IV progressions.
  89. Determine whether high pitches tend to have longer durations than low pitches.
  90. Determine whether Liszt uses a greater variety of harmonies than does Chopin.
  91. Determine whether Monteverdi used roughly equivalent numbers of sharps and flats.
  92. Determine whether notes at the ends of phrases tend to be longer than notes at the beginnings of phrases.
  93. Determine whether Schoenberg tended to use simultaneities that have more semitone relations and fewer tritone relations.
  94. Determine whether secondary dominants are more likely to occur on the third beat of triple meter works.
  95. Determine whether semitone trills tend to be longer or shorter than whole-tone trills.
  96. Determine whether submediant chords are more likely to be approached in a strong-to-weak or weak-to-strong rhythmic context.
  97. Determine whether the first pitch in a phrase is lower than the last pitch in the phrase.
  98. Determine whether the initial phrase in a work tends to be shorter than the final phrase.
  99. Determine whether the subdominant pitch is used less often in pop melodies than in French chanson.
  100. Determine whether the words `high,' `hoch,' or `haut' tend to coincide with higher pitches in a vocal work.
  101. Determine whether there are any notes in the bassoon part.
  102. Determine whether tonic pitches tend to be followed by a greater variety of melodic intervals than precedes it.
  103. Determine whether two works have similar vocabularies for their vocal texts.
  104. Determine which English translation of a Schubert text best preserves the vowel coloration.
  105. Determine which of two MIDI performances exhibits more dynamic range.
  106. Display lyrics with new lines indicated by punctuation.
  107. Display the MIDI data while performing.
  108. Do lower pitches tend to be quieter and higher pitches tend to be louder?
  109. Eliminate all data apart from beaming information.
  110. Eliminate all measure numbers.
  111. Estimate the amount of difference between two vocal texts.
  112. Estimate the degree of concrete/abstract language use for some vocal text.
  113. Estimate the degree of emotionality for some vocal text.
  114. Estimate the sensory dissonance evoked by some frequency spectrum.
  115. Expand all the verses for a strophic song.
  116. Expand repeats to a `through-composed' version of the score.
  117. Extract anacrusis material and the final measure from two scores.
  118. Extract and transpose the trumpet part to concert pitch.
  119. Extract any transposing instruments.
  120. Extract measure 27.
  121. Extract measures 10 to 20 in both of two scores.
  122. Extract measures 114 to 183 from a score.
  123. Extract the 'cello, oboe and flauto dolce parts.
  124. Extract the anacrusis material before the first barline.
  125. Extract the bass and soprano parts.
  126. Extract the bassoon part.
  127. Extract the coda section from a score.
  128. Extract the Erk edition.
  129. Extract the figured bass for the third recitative.
  130. Extract the first 20 sonorities of the last 30 sonorities.
  131. Extract the first and last notes of all phrases.
  132. Extract the first and third sonority following some marker.
  133. Extract the first four and last four phrases from a score.
  134. Extract the first four measures from the Trio section.
  135. Extract the first four phrases from a score.
  136. Extract the German text only from a score.
  137. Extract the lyrics for the third verse.
  138. Extract the material from Rehearsal Markings 5 to 7.
  139. Extract the MIDI data.
  140. Extract the recapitulation from a score.
  141. Extract the ripieno parts.
  142. Extract the second instance of the first theme.
  143. Extract the second theme from a score.
  144. Extract the second theme from the recapitulation.
  145. Extract the second-last phrase from a score.
  146. Extract the shamisen and shakuhachi parts.
  147. Extract the string parts and the oboe part.
  148. Extract the tenor part from a score.
  149. Extract the Trio section from a score.
  150. Extract the upper-most part.
  151. Extract the vocal parts.
  152. Extract the vocal text from a score.
  153. Extract the woodwind parts from a score.
  154. Find all 18th century works that include French horns and oboes.
  155. Find all Corelli works that contain a change of meter.
  156. Find all heterophonic works.
  157. Find all jazz works designated `bebop' in style.
  158. Find all Rondo movements.
  159. Find all scores composed by Cesar Franck.
  160. Find all scores containing one or more brass instruments.
  161. Find all scores containing passages in 7/8 meter.
  162. Find all scores containing passages in any minor key.
  163. Find all scores containing passages in C major.
  164. Find all scores containing pitch-class data.
  165. Find all scores written in compound meters.
  166. Find all woodwind quintets in compound meters that contain a change of key.
  167. Find all works composed between 1805 and 1809.
  168. Find all works that contain a change of key and a change of meter.
  169. Find all works that contain a change of key.
  170. Find other works that have the same instrumentation as a given work.
  171. For some flute work, compare fingering transitions for pre-Boehm and modern instruments.
  172. Generate a concordance of lyrics for some vocal corpus.
  173. Generate a list of all composers for some group of scores.
  174. Generate a list of instrumentations for some group of scores.
  175. Generate a list of titles for some group of scores.
  176. Generate a list of words used in some song.
  177. Generate a prime transposition for some tone-row.
  178. Generate a set matrix for a given tone row.
  179. Generate a standard MIDI file.
  180. Generate an inventory of pitch-class sets for melodic passages segmented into groups of three pitches.
  181. Generate an inventory of the patterns of stressed/unstressed syllables for some work.
  182. Generate an inversion for some tone-row.
  183. Group notes together by their beaming.
  184. Identify all D major triads in a work.
  185. Identify all encoded 17th century organ works in 6/8 meter.
  186. Identify all encoded 17th century organ works that do not contain passages in 6/8 meter.
  187. Identify all encoded works that were written in the 17th century, or were written for organ, or were written in 6/8 meter.
  188. Identify all meter signatures in a score.
  189. Identify all scores containing a tuba but not a trumpet.
  190. Identify all works not in the keys of C major, G major, B-flat major or D minor.
  191. Identify all works that are in compound meters, but not quadruple compound.
  192. Identify all works that end with a `tierce de picardie'.
  193. Identify alliterations in a vocal text.
  194. Identify any augmented sixth chords.
  195. Identify any augmented sixth intervals in Bach's two-part inventions.
  196. Identify any compound melodic intervals.
  197. Identify any cross-relations.
  198. Identify any differences between two vocal texts.
  199. Identify any diminished octave intervals in Beethoven's piano sonatas.
  200. Identify any eighth-notes that contain at least one flat and whose pitch lies within an octave of middle C.
  201. Identify any French sixth chords.
  202. Identify any German sixth chords.
  203. Identify any Italian sixth chords.
  204. Identify any Landini cadences.
  205. Identify any major or minor ninths melodic intervals.
  206. Identify any melody that contains both an ascending and descending major sixth interval.
  207. Identify any Neapolitan sixth chord that is missing the fifth of the chord.
  208. Identify any Neapolitan sixth chords spelled enharmonically on the raised tonic.
  209. Identify any Neapolitan sixth chords.
  210. Identify any subdominant chords between measures 80 and 86.
  211. Identify any tritone intervals that are not spelled as augmented fourths or diminished fifths.
  212. Identify any works that are classified as `Ballads'.
  213. Identify any works that are in irregular meters.
  214. Identify any works that are in simple triple meters.
  215. Identify any works that are not composed by Schumann.
  216. Identify any works that bear a dedication.
  217. Identify any works that contain passages in 9/8 meter.
  218. Identify any works that contain passages in either 3/8 or 9/8 meter.
  219. Identify any works that contain the word `Amour' in the title.
  220. Identify any works that contain the words `Drei' and `Koenige'.
  221. Identify any works that contain the words `Liebe' and `Tod' in the title.
  222. Identify any works that don't contain any double barlines.
  223. Identify any works whose instrumentation includes a cornet but not a trumpet.
  224. Identify any works whose instrumentation includes a trumpet and a cornet.
  225. Identify any works whose instrumentation includes a trumpet.
  226. Identify consecutive fifths or octaves.
  227. Identify doubled leading tones.
  228. Identify exposed octave.
  229. Identify crossing of parts.
  230. Identify overlapping of parts.
  231. Identify how frequently the dominant pitch occurs in the horn parts.
  232. Identify how often a high subdominant note in a long-short-long rhythm is followed by a low submediant in a long-long-short context.
  233. Identify how often the flute is resting when the trumpet is active.
  234. Identify how the melodic intervals in measures 8 to 32.
  235. Identify melodic intervals (avoiding intervals spanning rests).
  236. Identify overlapped parts.
  237. Identify parts that are out of range.
  238. Identify parts that are separated by more than an octave.
  239. Identify parts that move by augmented or diminished intervals.
  240. Identify possible recapitulation passages.
  241. Identify possible sonata-allegro movements.
  242. Identify progressions that are similar to II-IV-V-I.
  243. Identify similes using `like' or `as' in some vocal text.
  244. Identify the available versions of a score.
  245. Identify the average overall dynamic level for a work.
  246. Identify the crossing of parts.
  247. Identify the duration of the longest note marked staccato.
  248. Identify the highest note in a score.
  249. Identify the key signatures for all African works written in 3/4 meter.
  250. Identify the longest note in a score.
  251. Identify the longest run of ascending intervals in some melody.
  252. Identify the lowest note in a score.
  253. Identify the maximum number of voices in a score.
  254. Identify the most common harmonic interval arrangement in some score.
  255. Identify the most common harmonic progression apart from the V-I progression.
  256. Identify the most common sequence of five melodic intervals.
  257. Identify the most common word following `gloria' in Gregorian chants.
  258. Identify the number of notes per syllable for some score.
  259. Identify the number of notes per word for some score.
  260. Identify the number of syllables per phrase for some work.
  261. Identify the pitch-class sets used for vertical sonorities.
  262. Identify the proportion of intervals formed by the oboe and flute notes that are doubled.
  263. Identify the proportion of intervals formed by the oboe and flute notes that are doubled.
  264. Identify the shortest note in a score.
  265. Identify the stressed/unstressed pattern of syllables for some work.
  266. Identify those measures containing a ii-IV progression that were preceded by a iii-V progression in the previous measure.
  267. Identify those measures containing a iii-V progression.
  268. Identify those notes that begin a phrase, but are not rests.
  269. Identify two or more consecutive ascending major thirds in some melody.
  270. Identify unison doublings.
  271. Identify what harmonic intervals precede the interval of an octave.
  272. Identify what scale degree most commonly precedes the dominant pitch.
  273. Identify whether a score contains an `Andante' section.
  274. Identify whether a score contains any double sharps.
  275. Identify whether any score contains an `Andante' section.
  276. Identify whether drinking songs are more apt to be in triple meter.
  277. Identify whether dynamics are gradual or terraced.
  278. Identify whether large leaps involving chromatically-altered tones tend to have longer durations on the altered tone.
  279. Identify whether the dominant is more commonly approached from above or from below.
  280. Identify whether the subdominant occurs more frequently in one repertory than another.
  281. Identify whether there are any tritone melodic intervals in the vocal parts.
  282. Identify whether titles containing the word `death' or more likely to be in minor keys.
  283. Identify whether two songs have identical lyrics.
  284. Identify whether two works are identical apart from transposition.
  285. Identify whether two works have identical harmonies.
  286. Identify whether two works have identical rhythmic structures.
  287. Identify whether two works have the same instrumentation.
  288. Identify whether two works have the same key transitions.
  289. Identify which Bach chorale harmonizations have the same titles.
  290. Identify which composer has the most works.
  291. Identify which instrument is least likely to be playing when the woodwinds are active.
  292. Identify which works differ in instrumentation from other works.
  293. Identify which works have essentially the same vocal texts.
  294. Isolate all sonorities played on off-beats by the horns.
  295. Isolate all sonorities that occur on the fourth beat.
  296. Join three isolated measures into a single passage.
  297. Join three movements into a single score.
  298. Locate all instances of consecutive fifths.
  299. Locate all tritones in a score.
  300. Locate and identify all tone-row variants in a 12-tone work.
  301. Locate any beams that cross over phrase boundaries.
  302. Locate any double sharps in a score.
  303. Locate any doubled seventh scale degrees.
  304. Locate any parallel fifths between the bass and alto voices.
  305. Locate instances of the pitch sequence D-S-C-H in Shostakovich's music.
  306. Locate occurences of the word `Liebe' in some lyrics.
  307. Locate submediant pitches that are approached by an ascending major third followed by a descending major second.
  308. Locate the most emotionally charged words in some vocal text.
  309. Mark all instances of deceptive cadences.
  310. Measure the similarity of pitch motion between two parts.
  311. Modify a score so the durations are in diminution.
  312. Perform the first three measures from the second section of a binary form work.
  313. Play a melody but eliminate all tonic pitches.
  314. Play a melody but replace all tonic pitches by rests.
  315. Play just the rhythm of a work.
  316. Play some MIDI data from the `second theme'.
  317. Play some MIDI data.
  318. Play the clarinet part for the 4th and 8th phrases.
  319. Play the first and last measures from the Coda section at half tempo.
  320. Play the MIDI data at half tempo.
  321. Play the MIDI data from the next diminished octave.
  322. Play the MIDI data from the next G#.
  323. Play the MIDI data from the next pause.
  324. Play the thema and first variation at the same time.
  325. Play the `Trio' section.
  326. Print a transposed version of the accompaniment parts.
  327. Rearrange a score so the measures are in reverse order.
  328. Renumber all measures in a score.
  329. Scan a melody for passages that are similar in rhythm and pitch-contour to a given theme.
  330. Scan a melody for pitch motions that are similar to a given theme.
  331. Search for text phrases in the lyrics to some song.
  332. Select the Landowska version of a score.
  333. Shift the serial order of some series of dynamics, durations or articulation marks.
  334. Shift the serial order of some series of pitches.
  335. Transform a spectrum to take into account the effects of masking.
  336. Translate a Humdrum score to Csound for digital sound synthesis.
  337. Translate a pitch representation to standardized enharmonic pitch spelling.
  338. Translate a work to pitch-class representation.
  339. Translate to cents representation.
  340. Translate to French solfège representation.
  341. Translate to frequency representation.
  342. Translate to German pitch representation.
  343. Translate to International Standards Association pitch representation.
  344. Translate to MIDI representation.
  345. Translate to scale degree representation.
  346. Translate to semitone representation.
  347. Transpose down an augmented unison.
  348. Transpose enharmonically from F-sharp to G-flat.
  349. Transpose from one key to another.
  350. Transpose to Dorian mode.
  351. Transpose up a minor third.

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