cents -- translate selected Humdrum pitch-related representations to cents


cents [-p n] [-tx] [inputfile ...] [> outputfile.cnt]


The cents command transforms various pitch-related inputs to corresponding numerical values in hundredths of semitones. It outputs one or more Humdrum **cents spines containing values corresponding to the cents distance from middle C for pitch-related input tokens. Pitches above middle C produce positive output values, whereas pitches below middle C produce negative output values. For example, the **pitch token "C3" is transformed to -1200 (cents).

The cents command is able to translate any of the pitch-related representations listed below. In each case, a tuning standard of A4 equals 440 hertz is assumed. For descriptions of the various input representations (including **cents) refer to Section 2 (Representation Reference) of this reference manual.

It is recommended that output files produced using the cent command should be given names with the distinguishing `.cnt' extension.

**centshundredths of a semitone with respect to middle C=0
**freqfundamental frequency (in hertz)
**fretfretted-instrument pitch tablature
**kerncore pitch/duration representation
**MIDIMusic Instrument Digital Interface tablature
**pitchAmerican National Standards Institute pitch notation (e.g. "A#4")
**semitsequal-tempered semitones with respect to middle C=0 (e.g. 12 equals C5)
**solfgFrench solfège system (fixed `doh')
**specCspectral centroid (in hertz)
**TonhGerman pitch system
Input representations processed by cents.


The cents command provides the following options:
-hdisplays a help screen summarizing the command syntax
-p noutput precision of n decimal places
-tsuppresses printing of all but the first note of a group of tied **kern notes
-xsuppresses printing of non-cents signifiers
Options are specified in the command line.

The -p option can be used to set the precision of the output values to n decimal places. The default precision is integer values only (n=0). Note that cents is able to process **cents as input; this feature allows the user to round-off existing **cents data to a specified precision.

The -t ensures that only a single output value is given for tied **kern notes; the output coincides with the first note of the tie.

In the default operation, cents outputs non-pitch-related signifiers in addition to the cents value. For example, the **pitch token "A5zzz" will result in the output "2100zzz" -- that is, after translating A5 to 2100 cents, the "zzz" signifiers are retained in the output. For some applications, echoing non-pitch-related signifiers in the output is useful. However, in other situations, the result can prove confusing -- especially, when the non-pitch-related signifiers are numbers. Consider the case of the **kern token "8aa"; after translating `aa' to 2100 cents, the non-pitch-related signifier `8' will also be output, hence the value 82100 -- which will undoubtedly cause confusion. The -x option is useful for eliminating non-pitch-related signifiers from the output. For most **kern inputs, the -x option is recommended.


The following example illustrates the use of cents. The input contains six pitch-related spines -- two of which (**deg and **cocho) cannot be processed by cents. In addition, there are two non-pitch-related spines (**embell and **metpos).
!! `cents' example.
4a-]D4/48/ /52/128.11C3ct
.D4 F4/-52/237.33 6.4C3 Es3ct
rG4.r1rH2 D3.
Executing the command

cents -tx input > output.cnt

produces the following result:

!! `cents' example.
.200-1200 -800128.11-1200ct
.200 500.237.33 6.4-1200 -900ct
r700.r1r-1300 -1000.
Both processed and unprocessed spines are output. Notice that the tied note at the beginning of measure 2 in the **kern spine has been rendered as a single note rather than as two notes (due to the -t option). Also notice that the non-pitch-related signifiers (e.g. foo) in the first notes of the **pitch, **MIDI, and **cocho spines have been stripped away (due to the -x option).


The file x_option.awk is used by this program when the -x option is invoked.


DOS 2.0 and up, with the MKS Toolkit. OS/2 with the MKS Toolkit. UNIX systems supporting the Korn shell or Bourne shell command interpreters, and revised awk (1985).


**cents (2), **freq (2), freq (4), **fret (2), **kern (2), kern (4), **MIDI (2), midi (4), **pitch (2), pitch (4), **semits (2), semits (4), **solfg (2), solfg (4), **specC (2), specC (4), **Tonh (2), tonh (4)