Representation: **cents

Humdrum Representation for Pitch Cents


**cents – absolute pitch representation in hundredths of semitones


The **cents representation is used to represent absolute pitch in units of hundredths of semitones with respect to middle C. Each equally tempered semitone spans a distance of 100 cents. Middle C is designated zero cents. All other pitches are represented with respect to this reference, hence A4 is 900 cents and A3 is -300 cents. Cents may be specified as either integer or real values.

Pitch tokens may be modified by the presence of additional signifiers. The open brace `{‘ denotes the beginning of a phrase. The closed brace `}’ denotes the end of a phrase. The open parenthesis `(‘ denotes the beginning of a slur. The closed parenthesis `)’ denotes the end of a slur. The semicolon `;’ denotes a pause.

Rest tokens are denoted by the lower-case letter `r’.

Barlines are represented using the “common system” for barlines – see **barlines**.


It is recommended that files containing predominantly **cents spines should be given names with the distinguishing `.cnt’ extension.


The following table summarizes the **cents mappings of signifiers and signifieds.

0-9 decimal values
. decimal point; or null token
minus sign
plus sign (optional)
r rest
= barline; == double barline
( slur start
) slur end
{ phrase mark (start)
} phrase mark (end)
; pause sign

Summary of ***cents** Signifiers*


A sample document is given below:

**cents **cents
!tempered !untempered
=1 =1
{1200 {1209.
700 720.4
700 698
=2 =2
(800 (804.1
700)} 722)}
=3 =3
r r
500 1100 492 1131.2
=4 =4
400 1200 397 1202
== ==
*- *-


The following Humdrum commands accept **cents encoded data as inputs: **cents** change numerical precision of **cents values **freq** translates **cents to **freq **kern** translates **cents to **kern **pc** translates **cents to **pc **pitch** translate **cents pitch to numerical **pitch **semits** translates **cents to **semits **solfg** translates **cents to **solfg **tonh** translates **cents to **Tonh **vox** determine active and inactive voices in a Humdrum file The following Humdrum command produces **cents data as output: **cents** translates **cents, **freq, **fret, **kern, **MIDI, **pitch, **semits, **solfg, **specC, and **Tonh to **cents


The following tandem interpretations can be used in conjunction with **cents:

MIDI channel *Ch1
meter signatures *M6/8
key signatures *k[f#c#]
key *c#:
tempo *MM96.3

Tandem interpretations for ***cents***


`` barlines, cents, **freq, freq, **fret, **kern, kern, **MIDI, midi, **pitch, pitch, **semits, semits, **solfg, solfg, **specC, specc, **Tonh, tonh``