COMMAND

semits – translate selected Humdrum pitch-related representations to numerical semitones


SYNOPSIS

semits [-p n] [-tx] [inputfile ...] [ > outputfile.sem]


DESCRIPTION

The semits command transforms various pitch-related inputs to corresponding numerical semitone values. It outputs one or more Humdrum semits spines containing values corresponding to the semitone distance from middle C for pitch-related input tokens. Pitches above middle C produce positive output values, whereas pitches below middle C produce negative output values. For example, the pitch token "C3" is transformed to -12 (-ts).

The semits command is able to translate any of the pitch-related representations listed below. In each case, a tuning standard of A4 equals 440 hertz is assumed. For descriptions of the various input representations (including semits) refer to Section 2 (Representation Reference) of this reference manual.

It is recommended that output files produced using the semits command should be given names with the distinguishing `.sem' extension.


cents hundredths of a semitone with respect to middle C=0 (e.g. 1200 equals C5) freq fundamental frequency (in hertz) fret fretted-instrument pitch tablature kern core pitch/duration representation MIDI Music Instrument Digital Interface tablature pitch American National Standards Institute pitch notation (e.g. "A#4") semits equal-tempered semitones with respect to middle C=0 solfg French solfège system (fixed `doh') specC spectral centroid (in hertz) Tonh German pitch system ———— —————————————————————————

Input representations processed by semits.


OPTIONS

The semits command provides the following options:


h displays a help screen summarizing the command syntax -p n output precision of n decimal places t suppresses printing of all but the first note of a group of tied **kern notes x suppresses printing of non-semits data ——– ———————————————————————————

Options are specified in the command line.

The p option can be used to set the precision of the output values to n decimal places. The default precision is integer values only. Note that semits is able to process semits as input; this feature allows the user to round-off existing semits data to a specified precision.

The t ensures that only a single output value is given for tied kern notes; the output coincides with the first note of the tie.

In the default operation, semits outputs non-pitch-related signifiers in addition to the semits value. For example, the pitch token "A5zzz" will result in the output "21zzz" — that is, after translating A5 to 21 semits, the "zzz" signifiers are retained in the output. For some applications, echoing non-pitch-related signifiers in the output is useful. However, in other situations, the result can prove confusing — especially, when the non-pitch-related signifiers are numbers. Consider the case of the kern token "8aa"; after translating `aa' to 21 semits, the non-pitch-related signifier `8' will also be output, hence the value 821 — which will undoubtedly cause confusion. The x option is useful for eliminating non-pitch-related signifiers from the output. For most kern inputs, the x option is recommended.


EXAMPLES

The following example illustrates the use of semits. The input contains six pitch-related spines — two of which (deg and cocho) cannot be processed by semits. In addition, there are two non-pitch-related spines (embell and metpos). ``


!! `semits' example. **kern **pitch **MIDI **deg **metpos **cocho **Tonh **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 8ee- G#4foo /60/bar 1foo 1 r Gis2 ct . . /-60/ . . . . . 8ff A3 /62/ 2 3 9.89 H2 upt . . /-62/ . . . . . 8dd- Ab3 /70/ 1 2 7.07 B2 ct . . /-70/ . . . . . 8d- C#4 /61/ 6 3 7.135 Cis4 sus . . /-61/ . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 [4a- r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 Heses2 ct 4a-] D4 /48/ /52/ 1 2 8.11 C3 ct . . /-48/ . . . . . . D4 F4 /-52/ 2 3 7.33 6.4 C3 Es3 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r G4 . r 1 r H2 D3 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *- ———————— ———– ———– ——— ———— ———– ———- ————

Executing the command

semits -tx input > output

produces the following result: ``


!! `semits' example. **semits **semits **semits **deg **metpos **cocho **semits **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 15 8 0 1foo 1 r -16 ct . . . . . . . . 17 -3 2 2 3 9.89 -13 upt . . . . . . . . 13 -4 10 1 2 7.07 -14 ct . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 6 3 7.135 1 sus . . . . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 8 r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 -15 ct . 2 -12 -8 1 2 8.11 -12 ct . . . . . . . . . 2 5 . 2 3 7.33 6.4 -12 -9 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r 7 . r 1 r -13 -10 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *- ———————— ———— ———— ——— ———— ———– ———— ————

Both processed and unprocessed spines are output. Notice that the tied note at the beginning of measure 2 in the kern spine has been rendered as a single note rather than as two notes (due to the t option). Also notice that the non-pitch-related signifiers (e.g. foo) in the first notes of the **pitch, **MIDI, and cocho spines have been stripped away (due to the x option).


FILES

The file x_option.awk is used by this program when the x option is invoked.


PORTABILITY

DOS 2.0 and up, with the MKS Toolkit. OS/2 with the MKS Toolkit. UNIX systems supporting the Korn shell or Bourne shell command interpreters, and revised awk (1985).


SEE ALSO

**cents (2), cents (4), **freq (2), freq (4), **fret (2), **kern (2), kern (4), **MIDI (2), midi (4), **pitch (2), pitch (4), **semits (2), **solfg (2), solfg (4), **specC (2) specC (4), **Tonh (2), tonh (4)


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