degree — translate selected Humdrum pitch-related representations to absolute scale degree (degree)
degree [k|K key] [-tx] [inputfile ...] [> outputfile.dgr]
The degree command transforms various pitch-related inputs to the corresponding scale degree. The command outputs one or more Humdrum degree spines — where scale degrees are indicated by the numbers 1 (tonic) to 7 (leading tone). Scale degree information can be determined only with reference to some prevailing key. For example, the pitch C4 is the tonic (1) in the key of C major, but the submediant (6) in the key of E minor. The degree command expects a tandem interpretation indicating the key of the input passage; degree will adapt to specified changes of key within an input. If no key information is provided prior to the first pitch-related data, degree issues an error message and terminates.
The degree command differs from the (related) deg command in that it outputs absolute (rather than relative) pitch-height information. Along with the scale degree, the octave number is represented — the two values being separated by a slash (/). Hence the token `1/4' means the first scale degree (tonic) in octave `4'. As in the case of deg, plus and minus signs indicate whether a pitch has been chromatically raised or lowered. For example, the pitch A-flat is designated `6-' in the key of C major, but `6' in the key of C minor. The harmonic minor scale is assumed for all minor keys. Thus, B-flat is considered a "lowered" seventh degree in C minor, whereas B natural is considered the "normal" (rather than "raised") seventh degree. For some applications, this interpretation of the minor-scale seventh degree may cause difficulties.
The degree command is able to translate any of the pitch-related representations listed below. For descriptions of the various input representations (including degree) refer to Section 2 (Representation Reference) of this reference manual.
It is recommended that output files produced using the dgr command should be given names with the distinguishing `.dgr' extension.
kern core pitch/duration representation pitch American National Standards Institute pitch notation (e.g. "A#4") solfg French solfège system (fixed `doh') Tonh German pitch system ———– ———————————————————————-
Input representations processed by degree.
The degree command provides the following options:
displays a help screen summarizing the command syntax
specify default key
specify override key
suppresses printing of all but the first note of a group of tied
suppresses printing of
**degree signifiers Options are specified in the command line.
The t option ensures that only a single output value is given for tied kern notes; the output coincides with the first note of the tie.
In the default operation, degree outputs non-pitch-related
signifiers in addition to the degree value. For example, in the key of D
major, the pitch token "G5zzz" will result in the output
"4/5zzz" — that is, after translating G5 to 4/5, the "zzz"
signifiers are retained in the output. For some applications, echoing
non-pitch-related signifiers in the output is useful. However, in other
situations, the result can prove confusing — especially, when the
non-pitch-related signifiers are numbers. Consider the case of the
kern token "4f#" in the key of D minor; after translating
f#' to `
3+/4' (i.e. raised third degree in octave 4), the
preceding non-pitch-related signifier `
4' will also be output, hence
43+/4 — which may cause confusion.
The x option is useful for eliminating non-pitch-related signifiers from the output. For most kern inputs, the x option is recommended.
The following example illustrates the use of degree. The input contains four pitch-related spines — one of which (MIDI) cannot be processed by degree. In addition, there is one non-pitch-related spines (embell). ``
!! `degree' example. **kern **Tonh **MIDI **solfg **pitch **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *C: *d: *G#: *a: *F: *F: =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 8ee- Gis2 /60/ do3 F4foo ct . . /-60/ . . . 8f H2 /62/ fa3 r upt . . /-62/ . . . 8dd- B2 /70/ mi3 E4 ct . . /-70/ . . . 8d— Cis4 /61/ r F4 sus . . /-61/ . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 [4a- r . mi~b3 F4 A4 . . Heses2 . re3 G4 Bb4 ct 4a-] C3 /48/ /52/ do3 E4 C5 ct . . /-48/ . . . . H2 E3 /-52/ la3 G4 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r A2 F3 . r F4 . === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- ———————— ———- ———– ———– ———– ————
Executing the command:
degree -tx input > output.dgr
produces the following result: ``
!! `degree' example. **degree **degree **MIDI **degree **degree **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *C: *d: *G#: *a: *F: *F: =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 3-/5 4+/2 /60/ 3/3 1/4 ct . . /-60/ . . . 4/4 6+/2 /62/ 6/3 r upt . . /-62/ . . . 2-/5 6/2 /70/ 5/3 7/4 ct . . /-70/ . . . 2-/4 7/4 /61/ r 1/4 sus . . /-61/ . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 6-/4 r . 5-/3 1/4 3/4 . . 6-/2 . 4/3 2/4 4/4 ct . 7-/3 /48/ /52/ 3/3 7/4 5/5 ct . . /-48/ . . . . 6+/2 2/3 /-52/ 1/3 2/4 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r 5/2 3/3 . r 1/4 . === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- ———————— ———— ———– ———— ———— ————
Both processed and unprocessed spines are output. Notice that the tied
note at the beginning of measure 2 in the kern spine has been
rendered as a single note rather than as two notes (due to the t
option). Also notice that the non-pitch-related signifiers (e.g. foo) in
the first notes of the pitch spine have been stripped away (due to
the x option). Note that the plus and minus signs merely indicate
that a scale degree has been raised or lowered, but not by how much.
Hence both the D-flat and D double-flat in measure 1 of the first
**kern) spine are rendered as degree `
x_option.awk is used by this program when the x option
DOS 2.0 and up, with the MKS Toolkit. OS/2 with the MKS Toolkit. UNIX systems supporting the Korn shell or Bourne shell command interpreters, and revised awk (1985).
**deg (2), deg (4), **degree (2), **kern (2), kern (4), **pitch (2), pitch (4), **solfg (2), solfg (4), **Tonh (2), tonh (4)