Representation: **synco


Humdrum Representation for Metric Syncopation

REPRESENTATION

**synco – represent degree of metric syncopation

DESCRIPTION

The **synco representation encodes numerical values that indicate the degree of metric syncopation for successive moments in a musical passage. Data tokens for **synco consist only of decimal numbers. The value 0 indicates no metric syncopation at the current data record. Higher numerical values indicate increasing amounts of metric syncopation at the current data record.

Syncopation values follow a definition of metric syncopation inspired by the work of Lee and Longuet-Higgins (1982). In brief, metric syncopation may be defined as a moment where an expected metric stress is absent. More specifically, a metrically syncopated moment is defined as occurring when no note-onset happens at a moment whose metric position is more important than that of the most recent note onset. For example, where a note occurs on the second beat of a quadruple meter, and is not followed by a note on the third beat, the third beat is deemed syncopated because it occupies a higher metric position than the previous onset.

Numerical **synco values are equal to the logarithm of the metric position of the previous onset minus the logarithm of the metric position of the current moment – where the current moment has no note onset, and coincides with a higher metric position than the previous onset. For example, missing downbeats at the beginning of a measure produce the large syncopation values.

Barlines are represented using the “common system” for barlines – see **barlines**.

Note: **synco data is normally produced by the synco command.

FILE TYPE

It is recommended that files containing predominantly **synco data should be given names with the distinguishing `.syn’ extension.

SIGNIFIERS

The following table summarizes the **synco mappings of signifiers and signifieds.

0-9 decimal values
. fractional delimiter; null token
= barline; == double barline

Summary of ***synco** Signifiers*

EXAMPLES

A sample document is given below:

**synco
*M2/4
*tb8
=1
0
0
0
0
=2
1.10
0
0
0
=3
0.69
0
*-

PERTINENT COMMANDS

The following Humdrum command produces **synco data as output:

  **synco** measure the degree of metric syncopation

TANDEM INTERPRETATIONS

The following tandem interpretations can be used in conjunction with **synco:

MIDI channel *Ch1
meter signatures *M6/8
tempo *MM96.3
timebase *tb32

Tandem interpretations for ***synco***

SEE ALSO

`` barlines, **metpos, synco, **timebase``

REFERENCES

Longuet-Higgins, H. C., & Lee, C. S., “The perception of musical rhythms,” Perception, Vol. 11 (1982) pp. 115-128.