Representation: **embel


Humdrum Representation for Embellishment Tones

REPRESENTATION

**embel – representation for embellishment tones

DESCRIPTION

The **embel representation is used to represent the harmonic status of individual pitches in a passage of Western tonal music. There are several different ways of defining and classifying embellishment tones. The **embel representation categorizes embellishment tones according to the following criteria:

  • whether or not the tone belongs to a given chord
  • whether or not the tone appears in a metrically accented position
  • whether or not the tone is approached by diatonic step
  • whether or not the tone is resolved or left by diatonic step.

Although variations in nomenclature exist, music scholars have identified and defined many types of embellishment tones including: passing tones, neighbour tones, appoggiaturas, escape tones, anticipations, retardations, and suspensions. In addition to these non-chordal embellishment tones, there are also chordal embellishment tones, such as repetitions, and arpeggiations. The following table characterizes each of the various types of embellishment tones according to the criteria outlined above.

Non-Chordal Embellishments:

Approach

Resolution

Metric position

Accented passing tone

step

step (in same direction)

accented

Unaccented passing tone

step

step (in same direction)

unaccented

Upper neighbor tone

ascending step

step (in opposite direction)

unaccented

Lower neighbor tone

descending step

step (in opposite direction)

unaccented

Accented upper neighbor

ascending step

step (in opposite direction)

unaccented

Accented lower neighbor

descending step

step (in opposite direction)

unaccented

Anticipation

step or leap

same pitch

unaccented

Suspension

same pitch

descending step

accented

Retardation

same pitch

ascending step

accented

Escape tone

step

leap

unaccented

Appoggiatura

leap

step

accented

Changing tone

¤

¤

¤

Pedal tone

¤

¤

¤

Chordal Embellishments:

Repeated chordal tone

same pitch

¤

¤

Arpeggio tone

leap

step or leap

¤

Types of Chordal and Non-chordal Embellishments

When the harmony changes while a pitch is sustained, it is possible for a chordal tone to be transformed into a non-chordal embellishment, such as a suspension. Whenever a tone changes function as an embellishment, at the appropriate point it is indicated by placing the **embel data token in square brackets. The square brackets indicate that the note is already sounding (no new note-onset), but has changed function.

Embellishment tokens may be modified by the presence of additional signifiers. The open brace `{‘ denotes the beginning of a phrase. The closed brace `}’ denotes the end of a phrase. The semicolon `;’ denotes a pause.

Rest tokens are denoted by the lower-case letter `r’.

Barlines are represented using the “common system” for barlines – see **barlines**.

FILE TYPE

It is recommended that files containing predominantly **embel data should be given names with the distinguishing `.emb’ extension.

SIGNIFIERS

The following table provides a complete list of signifiers defined in **embel:

aln accented lower neighbor tone
ant anticipation
app appoggiatura
apt accented passing tone
arp arpeggio tone (chordal tone)
arp7 arpeggio tone (7th added to the chord)
aun accented upper neighbor tone
chg changing tone
cln chromatic lower neighbor tone
ct chordal tone (i.e. not an embellishment)
ct7 chordal tone (7th added to the chord)
cun chromatic upper neighbor tone
cup chromatic unaccented passing tone
et escape tone
ln lower neighbor tone
ped pedal
rep repeated tone
ret retardation
23ret 2-3 retardation
78ret 7-8 retardation
sus suspension
43sus 4-3 suspension
98sus 9-8 suspension
76sus 7-6 suspension
un upper neighbor tone
un7 upper neighbor tone (7th added to the chord)
upt unaccented passing tone
upt7 unaccented passing tone (7th added to the chord)

Summary of ***embel** Signifiers*

EXAMPLES

A sample document is given below:

**kern **embel **harm
*C: *C: *C:
=1 =1 =1
4g ct I
4cc ct Ib
8ff app Ic
[8ee ct .
=2 =2 =2
2ee] [sus] V7
4dd ct .
=3 =3 =3
4cc ct I
*- *- *-

PERTINENT COMMANDS

Currently, no special-purpose Humdrum commands produce **embel as output, or process **embel encoded data as input.

TANDEM INTERPRETATIONS

The following tandem interpretations can be used in conjunction with **embel:

MIDI channel *Ch1
meter signatures *M6/8
key signatures *k[f#c#]
key *c#:

Tandem interpretations for ***embel***

SEE ALSO

`` barlines, **harm``