Command: semits


COMMAND

semits – translate selected Humdrum pitch-related representations to numerical semitones


SYNOPSIS

`` semits [-p n] [-tx] [inputfile ...] [ > outputfile.sem]``


DESCRIPTION

The semits command transforms various pitch-related inputs to corresponding numerical semitone values. It outputs one or more Humdrum **semits spines containing values corresponding to the semitone distance from middle C for pitch-related input tokens. Pitches above middle C produce positive output values, whereas pitches below middle C produce negative output values. For example, the **pitch token “C3” is transformed to -12 (-ts).

The semits command is able to translate any of the pitch-related representations listed below. In each case, a tuning standard of A4 equals 440 hertz is assumed. For descriptions of the various input representations (including **semits) refer to Section 2 (Representation Reference) of this reference manual.

It is recommended that output files produced using the semits command should be given names with the distinguishing `.sem’ extension.

**cents hundredths of a semitone with respect to middle C=0 (e.g. 1200 equals C5)
**freq fundamental frequency (in hertz)
**fret fretted-instrument pitch tablature
**kern core pitch/duration representation
**MIDI Music Instrument Digital Interface tablature
**pitch American National Standards Institute pitch notation (e.g. “A#4”)
**semits equal-tempered semitones with respect to middle C=0
**solfg French solfège system (fixed `doh’)
**specC spectral centroid (in hertz)
**Tonh German pitch system

Input representations processed by **semits*.*


OPTIONS

The semits command provides the following options:

-h displays a help screen summarizing the command syntax
-p n output precision of n decimal places
-t suppresses printing of all but the first note of a group of tied **kern notes
-x suppresses printing of non-semits data

Options are specified in the command line.

The -p option can be used to set the precision of the output values to n decimal places. The default precision is integer values only. Note that semits is able to process **semits as input; this feature allows the user to round-off existing **semits data to a specified precision.

The -t ensures that only a single output value is given for tied **kern notes; the output coincides with the first note of the tie.

In the default operation, semits outputs non-pitch-related signifiers in addition to the semits value. For example, the **pitch token “A5zzz” will result in the output “21zzz” – that is, after translating A5 to 21 semits, the “zzz” signifiers are retained in the output. For some applications, echoing non-pitch-related signifiers in the output is useful. However, in other situations, the result can prove confusing – especially, when the non-pitch-related signifiers are numbers. Consider the case of the **kern token “8aa”; after translating `aa’ to 21 semits, the non-pitch-related signifier `8’ will also be output, hence the value 821 – which will undoubtedly cause confusion. The -x option is useful for eliminating non-pitch-related signifiers from the output. For most **kern inputs, the -x option is recommended.


EXAMPLES

The following example illustrates the use of semits. The input contains six pitch-related spines – two of which (**deg and **cocho) cannot be processed by semits. In addition, there are two non-pitch-related spines (**embell and **metpos). ````

!! `semits’ example. **kern **pitch **MIDI **deg **metpos **cocho **Tonh **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 8ee- G#4foo /60/bar 1foo 1 r Gis2 ct . . /-60/ . . . . . 8ff A3 /62/ 2 3 9.89 H2 upt . . /-62/ . . . . . 8dd- Ab3 /70/ 1 2 7.07 B2 ct . . /-70/ . . . . . 8d- C#4 /61/ 6 3 7.135 Cis4 sus . . /-61/ . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 [4a- r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 Heses2 ct 4a-] D4 /48/ /52/ 1 2 8.11 C3 ct . . /-48/ . . . . . . D4 F4 /-52/ 2 3 7.33 6.4 C3 Es3 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r G4 . r 1 r H2 D3 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *-

Executing the command

`` semits -tx input > output``

produces the following result: ````

!! `semits’ example. **semits **semits **semits **deg **metpos **cocho **semits **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 15 8 0 1foo 1 r -16 ct . . . . . . . . 17 -3 2 2 3 9.89 -13 upt . . . . . . . . 13 -4 10 1 2 7.07 -14 ct . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 6 3 7.135 1 sus . . . . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 8 r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 -15 ct . 2 -12 -8 1 2 8.11 -12 ct . . . . . . . . . 2 5 . 2 3 7.33 6.4 -12 -9 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r 7 . r 1 r -13 -10 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *-

Both processed and unprocessed spines are output. Notice that the tied note at the beginning of measure 2 in the **kern spine has been rendered as a single note rather than as two notes (due to the -t option). Also notice that the non-pitch-related signifiers (e.g. foo) in the first notes of the **pitch, **MIDI, and **cocho spines have been stripped away (due to the -x option).


FILES

The file x_option.awk is used by this program when the -x option is invoked.


PORTABILITY

DOS 2.0 and up, with the MKS Toolkit. OS/2 with the MKS Toolkit. UNIX systems supporting the Korn shell or Bourne shell command interpreters, and revised awk (1985).


SEE ALSO

`` **cents (2), cents (4), **freq (2), freq (4), **fret (2), **kern (2), kern (4), **MIDI (2), midi (4), **pitch (2), pitch (4), **semits (2), **solfg (2), solfg (4), **specC (2) specC (4), **Tonh (2), tonh (4)``