Command: pitch


COMMAND

pitch – translate selected Humdrum pitch-related representations to American standard pitch notation


SYNOPSIS

`` pitch [-tx] [inputfile ...] [ > outputfile.pit]``


DESCRIPTION

The pitch command transforms various pitch-related inputs to the corresponding pitch designations approved by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI). The pitch command outputs one or more Humdrum **pitch spines. ANSI pitch designations use the upper-case letters A to G followed by an optional accidental, followed by an octave number. In the Humdrum **pitch representation, optional cents deviation from equal temperament can also be encoded.

The pitch command is able to translate any of the pitch-related input representations listed below. In each case, a tuning standard of A4 equals 440 hertz is assumed. For descriptions of the various input representations (including **pitch) refer to Section 2 (Representation Reference) of this reference manual.

It is recommended that output files produced using the pitch command should be given names with the distinguishing `.pit’ extension.

**cents hundredths of a semitone with respect to middle C=0
**degree key-related scale degree
**freq fundamental frequency (in hertz)
**fret fretted-instrument pitch tablature
**kern core pitch/duration representation
**MIDI Music Instrument Digital Interface tablature
**semits equal-tempered semitones with respect to middle C=0 (e.g. 12 = C5)
**solfg French solfège system (fixed `doh’)
**specC spectral centroid (in hertz)
**Tonh German pitch system

Input representations processed by **pitch*.*


OPTIONS

The pitch command provides the following options:

-h displays a help screen summarizing the command syntax
-t suppresses printing of all but the first of a group of tied **kern notes
-x suppresses printing of non-pitch-related signifiers

Options are specified in the command line.

The -t option ensures that only a single output value is given for tied **kern notes; the output coincides with the first note of the tie.

In the default operation, pitch outputs non-pitch-related signifiers in addition to the **pitch pitch value. For example, the **Tonh token “Ges5zzz” will result in the output “Gb5zzz” – that is, after translating Ges5 to Gb5, the “zzz” signifiers are retained in the output. For some applications, echoing non-pitch-related signifiers in the output is useful. However, in other situations, the result can prove confusing – especially, when the non-pitch-related signifiers are numbers. Consider the case of the **kern token “8aa#”; after translating `aa#’ to A#5, the non-pitch-related signifier `8’ will also be output, hence the value 8A#5 – which may cause confusion; commands such as **tonh,** **solfg,** and **pitch** treat the first number encountered in an input token as the octave designation. Hence further processing of this token may lead to it’s interpretation as A#8 – or even A#58 – rather than A#5.

The -x option is useful for eliminating non-pitch-related signifiers from the output. For most **kern inputs, the -x option is recommended.


EXAMPLES

The following example illustrates the use of pitch. The input contains six pitch-related spines – two of which (**deg and **cocho) cannot be processed by pitch. In addition, there are two non-pitch-related spines (**embell and **metpos). ````

!! `pitch’ example. **kern **freq **MIDI **deg **metpos **cocho **degree **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * * * *d: * * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 8ee- 93foo /60/bar 1foo 1 r 1/4 ct . . /-60/ . . . . . 8ff 220 /62/ 2 3 9.89 2/4 upt . . /-62/ . . . . . 8dd- 936.2 /70/ 1 2 7.07 3+/4 ct . . /-70/ . . . . . 8d- 277.18 /61/ 6 3 7.135 7/3 sus . . /-61/ . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 [4a- r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 1/4 ct 4a-] 300 /48/ /52/ 1 2 8.11 6+/4 ct . . /-48/ . . . . . . 82.4 261.6 /-52/ 2 3 7.33 6.4 3/4 5/4 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r 512 . r 1 r 3/4 1/5 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *-

Executing the command

`` pitch -tx input > output.pit``

produces the following result: ````

!! `pitch’ example. **pitch **pitch **pitch **deg **metpos **cocho **pitch **embell *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 *M2/4 * * * * * * *d: * * * * * *tb8 * * * =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 =1 Eb5 F#2+9 C4 1foo 1 r D4 ct . . . . . . . . F5 A3 D4 2 3 9.89 E4 upt . . . . . . . . Db5 Bb5+7 Bb4 1 2 7.07 F#4 ct . . . . . . . . Db4 Db4 Db4 6 3 7.135 C#3 sus . . . . . . . . =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 =2 Ab4 r . 5 1 r r . . . . 7 3 5.5 D4 ct . D4+36 C3 E3 1 2 8.11 B4 ct . . . . . . . . . E2 C4 . 2 3 7.33 6.4 F4 A4 ct =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 =3 r C5-37 . r 1 r F4 D5 . === === === === === === === === *- *- *- *- *- *- *- *-

Both processed and unprocessed spines are output. Notice that the tied note at the beginning of measure 2 in the **kern spine has been rendered as a single note rather than as two notes (due to the -t option). Also notice that the non-pitch-related signifiers (e.g. foo) in the first notes of the **freq, **MIDI, and **cocho spines have been stripped away (due to the -x option). In the case of the **degree input, pitch recognizes the spelling of various pitches in the context of the key of D minor. Hence, the raised third degree is F#, and the raised sixth degree is B natural. Also note the presence of cents-deviation from equal temperament in the translation of the **freq data (second spine).


FILES

The file x_option.awk is used by this program when the -x option is invoked.


PORTABILITY

DOS 2.0 and up, with the MKS Toolkit. OS/2 with the MKS Toolkit. UNIX systems supporting the Korn shell or Bourne shell command interpreters, and revised awk (1985).


SEE ALSO

`` **cents (2), cents (4), **degree (2), degree (4), **freq (2), freq (4), **fret (2), hint (4), **kern (2), kern (4), **MIDI (2), midi (4), mint (4), **pitch (2), **semits (2), semits (4), **solfg (2), solfg (4), **specC (2) specC (4), **Tonh (2), tonh (4)``